REVERSE memory loss, arrest mental decline and restore normal memory function

This little-known, completely safe and natural nutrient has been used successfully for many years to reverse memory loss, arrest mental decline, sharpen thinking and produce a host of beneficial effects in brain function.

If you’re reading this report you are obviously worried about your memory and brain function. You may be-

  • Misplacing things
  • Getting mixed-up
  • Losing train of thought
  • Not recognizing friends and neighbors
  • Forgetting to do something you promised
  • Having fuzzy thoughts
  • Trouble learning new things. etc. etc.
  • Forgetting details
  • Drawing mental “blank”
  • Mental fatigue
  • Forgetting names
  • Forgetting previous day’s or week’s events
  • Getting very moody
  • Poor self image

This special research report is worth the 5 minutes of your time to read and will give you the information you need to make an informed decision about your health and how you can get MIRACLE results for just pennies a day.









A number of research studies have identified common, potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. These risk factors include:

  • Hypertension. A large, preliminary study in 1998 found associations between hypertension and deterioration in mental function.
  • Diabetes. Diabetes is associated with lower levels of cognitive function and greater cognitive decline among older women.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency. An important manifestation of B12 deficiency is cognitive impairment.
  • Toxicities known to produce dementias include narcotic poisoning, heavy metal intoxication, dialysis dementia (aluminum), and other organic toxins.
  • Menopause. A fairly common symptom of menopause is decreased memory and concentration.
  • Multiple Medications
  • Depression
  • Lack of Mental Activity
  • Stress
  • Atherosclerosis (Hardening of Arteries)

Programs and actions that help minimize these risks will help improve memory functions over the short and long term.



With age comes the increasing likelihood of developing memory loss. The mildest form, age associated memory impairment, is characterised by self perception of memory loss. About 40% of people aged 65 or older have age associated memory impairment in the United States, about 16 million people. Only about 1% of them will progress to dementia each year.

How many people have age-related memory loss? There’s no agreement about that, either. One widely cited study (Larrabee & Crook, 1994) estimates that more than half of people over 60 have “age-associated memory impairment.



People who keep learning and stay mentally active increase their odds of retaining good brain function as they age. The more you use your brain, the stronger it gets—and the longer it stays strong.






April 26, 2007

“Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a dietary supplement that has received a great deal of interest as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other memory problems. Most studies involving Phosphatidyl Serine indicate a benefit — improved cognitive abilities and behaviors. However, it seems to be most effective in people with the least severe symptoms. It's not clear how Phosphatidyl Serine improves memory. It has only a few, minor side effects, such as stomach upset. Phosphatidyl Serine seems to hold some promise as a potential treatment for people with Alzheimer's and other memory problems.”







People who keep learning and stay mentally active increase their odds of retaining good brain function as they age. The more you use your brain, the stronger it gets—and the longer it stays strong.




Chasing symptoms as a means of preventing future calamity is a limited, shortsighted and apparently dangerous approach to health.  Build good health with nutrition, exercise, water, rest, peace of mind and a good nerve supply.  By taking a wellness approach, you eliminate many sources of potential harm while better preparing your body for the challenges life throws your way.

Inspiration is a much better way to live than desperation.



London taxi drivers are renowned for their excellent memory in regard to spatial learning – their ability to navigate the vast network of London streets. It turns out they have an enlarged hippocampi area of the brain.





People who keep learning and stay mentally active increase their odds of retaining good brain function as they age. The more you use your brain, the stronger it gets—and the longer it stays strong.





The brain’s approximately 100 billion nerve cells are energy guzzlers. They’re our largest, longest, most metabolically active cells. They generate, propagate, and integrate electrical signals all through the brain and spinal cord and out into the limbs. Their membrane systems are literally their electrical transmission grids, along as many as 100 trillion pathways. And for all this they need PS.






Chasing symptoms as a means of preventing future calamity is a limited, shortsighted and apparently dangerous approach to health.  Build good health with nutrition, exercise, water, rest, peace of mind and a good nerve supply.  By taking a wellness approach, you eliminate many sources of potential harm while better preparing your body for the challenges life throws your way.

Inspiration is a much better way to live than desperation.





People who keep learning and stay mentally active increase their odds of retaining good brain function as they age. The more you use your brain, the stronger it gets—and the longer it stays strong.





Your brain uses 20% of your blood. About 20% of your blood is pumped to the brain, which needs it to keep up with the heavy metabolic demands of its neurons.

• Your brain uses 20% of your oxygen. What accounts for 2% of your body's mass, yet uses 20% of all the oxygen you breathe? Your brain! It needs a continuous supply of oxygen, and a 10 minute loss of oxygen can cause significant neural damage.

• The cerebellum, sometimes called the "little brain", weighs approximately 150 grams. Found at the lower back of the brain, it is needed to maintain posture, to walk, and to perform any coordinated movements. It may also play a role in olfaction or smell.

• The brain has no pain. Because there are no nerves that register pain within the brain itself, neurosurgeons can probe the brain while a patient is conscious. They can then use feedback from the patient to identify important regions, such as those used for speech.


London taxi drivers are renowned for their excellent memory in regard to spatial learning – their ability to navigate the vast network of London streets. It turns out they have an enlarged hippocampi area of the brain.




Chronic stress may be detrimental to brain health and memory performance. Animal studies show that prolonged exposure to stress hormones has an adverse effect on the hippocampus, a brain region involved in memory and learning. Human investigations indicate that several days of exposure to high levels of the stress hormone cortisol can impair memory. Chronic stress can contribute to depression and anxiety disorders, which often interfere with normal memory processing, particularly as people age. Taken together, these findings suggest that minimising stress may have a beneficial impact on brain health.



From the perspective of duration of memory retention, there are three memory types: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory . Sensory memory operates 200-500 ms immediately after a perceptual event and can hold approximately 12 items for a negligible quantity of time. Occasionally, experiences that begin as sensory memories transfer to short term memory, which can hold 5, plus or minus 2 items without rehearsal for somewhere between a minute to an hour. Short term memory is responsible for the "phonological loop" - our internal monologue reciting something to remember it.

Chasing symptoms as a means of preventing future calamity is a limited, shortsighted and apparently dangerous approach to health.  Build good health with nutrition, exercise, water, rest, peace of mind and a good nerve supply.  By taking a wellness approach, you eliminate many sources of potential harm while better preparing your body for the challenges life throws your way.

Inspiration is a much better way to live than desperation.




figure 1
Figure 1: Brain Memory Areas

Different brain areas and systems mediate distinct forms of memory. The hippocampus, parahippocampal region, and areas of the cerebral cortex compose a system that supports cognitive memory. Different forms of non-cognitive, or behavioral memory are supported by the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum.

The human brain is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons that communicate with each other via a large array of biological and chemical signals. Each neuron has several parts and each part has a specific function. Neurons communicate with each other through small gaps called synapses using a combination of electrical discharge and a secreted substance called a neurochemical. Scientists estimate that each one of our neurons can have up to 15,000 synapses. There are several neurochemicals and each one can either “turn on” or “turn off” a signal. Millions of signals travel back and forth across the synapses in a fraction of a second at any given time. (See Figure 2)

Figure 2: Synapses

The orange dots represent the multiple synapses on a single neuron. Synapses, from the Greek word meaning “to clasp together,” are the contact points where one neuron communicates with another.

Neurons are grouped and organized and have different jobs depending on their location in the brain. The location of neurons responsible for memory are generally wide-spread. However, within the brain there is a “complex highly organized filing system” for the retrieval of memory. Scientists believe that no single brain center stores memory. It most likely is stored in distributed collections of cortical processing systems that are also involved in the perception, processing, and analysis of the material being learned. In short, each part of the brain most likely contributes differently to permanent memory storage.

All we have ever known or will ever feel, begins and ends with the hundreds of billions of nerve cells that form our brain. Without them, there can be no experience; for us, nothing would exist. Our mind and personality, the sense of who we are, emanate from this immensely intricate system of nerves. The brain's remarkable ability to perceive and perform, remember and learn is severely challenged by today's social and physical environment. These environmental factors accelerate the decline in nerve cell activity that normally occurs with age. Recent clinical research is revealing how previously unrecognized nutrients can strengthen the body's natural defenses against age-related cognitive decline.


How many times have you walked into a room and forgotten what you came for? Searched in vain for keys that have mysteriously disappeared? Or forgotten the name of someone you should know? The link between old age and forgetfulness is cliché enough to be the subject of greeting cards, sitcoms and jokes. We take it for granted so often that very few of us take the time to question why it happens. Such moments of forgetfulness happen to everyone—even the young—but as we get older, they may leave us wondering if we’re losing our edge. Or worse, they may invoke the specter of Alzheimer’s disease, the progressive dementia that now affects 4 million Americans. Remembering and forgetting are perfectly normal parts of everyday life. But what happens as we get older? Is losing our memory an inevitable part of aging? And how do we know if it’s an early sign of Alzheimer’s? ( See below “Memory Loss or Alzheimers”) Scientists are just beginning to sort out the answers to these questions. Much of the news from brain research is good. Cognitive decline may not be inevitable as we age, experts say. While with advancing age many people may experience some degree of change in so-called cognitive abilities, which include memory as well as a range of other intellectual functions, how big a change varies greatly.

As brain functions go, forgetting may be almost as important as remembering; it would be inefficient for our brains to try to retain every bit of information we’re exposed to throughout life. How the brain sorts out what makes it into long-term memory and what doesn’t is a matter of continuing debate, and may be influenced by many factors, including our emotional state, stress level, the environment around us, previous memories, biases, and perceptions. Brain scientists believe that the effects of normal aging on memory may result from the subtly changing environment within the brain. With aging, the brain seems to lose cells in areas that produce important neurotransmitters, upsetting the brain’s delicate balance of these chemical messengers. Other changes occur in the brain’s white matter, which is made up of nerve cell fibers, the “telephone cables” of brain cells through which communication with other cells takes place. Just how these changes affect memory is not entirely clear, but it may be that they decrease the efficiency of cell-to-cell communication. What scientists do know is that, as we get older, our ability to lay down new memories may be affected, making it more difficult to learn new things. It’s not so much that we forget more easily, but that we may take longer to learn the information in the first place. Memory studies have shown that about a third of healthy older people have difficulty with declarative memory but once something is learned, it is retained equally well by all age groups, even if it takes a bit longer for the older people to learn it. In practical terms, this means that as we get older, we may have to pay closer attention to new information that we want to retain.

As early as age 30, everyday memory lapses, decreased alertness and forgetfulness can begin to occur. 75% of Americans actually suffer from a decline in brain function, and as we age, it continues to decline. Many dismiss the small clues as something that happens to everyone as we age, but science has shown that this is a mistake. Cognitive impairment that is usually associated with aging can also have other symptoms like withdrawal, stress-related problems and mood swings. Things that can cause the impairment to become more severe are medication side effects, substance abuse, infections, hormonal changes, depression, metabolic, neurological and circulatory disorders, and others.

A nerve cell has thousands of synapses passing the chemical messages to other nerve cells. As we age, these synaptic connections begin to deteriorate along with the nerve cells themselves. This deterioration is especially true if the brain is not used as you age. As these communication points between nerve cells becomes less and less reliable, you may begin to forget or misplace things and find tasks too complicated to tackle.


The answer is PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS). (While Phosphatidylserine appears as one word in many scientific journals, the name is often split into two- Phosphatidyl Serine)

Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a member of a family of compounds called phospholipids (phosphorus-containing lipids). PS is a vital component of all cell membranes and is found in particularly high concentrations within the brain. It serves to maintain the integrity and function of the cell membranes. It also allows communication among nerve cells, promotes proper nutrient movement across the cell membrane and aids proper release and reception of neurotransmitters in the brain. In other words, it is very important in the normal function of nerve cells.

Research reveals that PS levels naturally decline with age, and when they do, the ability to learn, remember things and stay alert also declines. PS is vital to brain cell structure and function, and plays an important role in the brain's neurotransmitter systems, metabolism, and maintaining nerve connections. PS plays critical roles in maintaining both the structure and functionality of brain cells. PS encourages the regrowth of damaged nerve networks. Low levels of Phosphatidyl Serine in the brain are associated with impaired mental function and depression in the elderly. Supplementation with PS consistently benefits memory, learning, concentration, word choice, and other measurable cognition parameters, as well as mood and the capacity to cope with stress. Numerous studies have documented Phosphatidyl Serine's ability to improve memory, learning, concentration, word recall, and mood in middle-aged and elderly subjects with dementia or age-related cognitive decline.

This natural hormone supports communication between brain cells and promotes improved memory function. PS is the most widely studied substance used to raise acetylcholine neurotransmitter levels and results in marked improvement in short-term memory and mental activity.

From the moment we rise to the moment we rest, our brain is in a decision-making frenzy. When we’re thirsty, our brain tells us that we need water. When we’re hungry, it reminds us that we have a refrigerator full of food. When we’re tired, it lets us know that we need to sleep, and so on. But despite the thousands of decisions we make everyday, our brain still hasn’t figured out a way to let us know what it needs to function.

Though ironic, this raises a very serious issue. The human brain, like every other organ in the body, demands nutrition - period. Unfortunately, it leaves that up to us to figure out. Thanks to notable advancements in research, we’re finally learning which nutrients are most important for optimal brain function. PS is the perfect example. Because of dietary changes during the past 100 years, the average daily natural PS intake has dropped in half. The scientific evidence for PS supplementation improving a number of mental and bodily functions is quite strong.

This naturally occurring essential fatty acid has been the subject of numerous studies regarding its ability to boost cognitive function and delay (or potentially reverse) memory deterioration, and suggests that PS may be able to increase the effectiveness of neural transmissions. Interestingly, PS accounts for roughly 15% of the brain’s phospholipid supply. This is enormous because phospholipids play a significant role in the billions of neurotransmissions that take place every second. Brain cells are constantly communicating with one another, and send astonishing amounts of impulses throughout the nervous system. This is accomplished via neurotransmitters - chemical messengers that send and receive impulses over the synapses of the brain and throughout the body. Mentally, we’re functioning at our best when these cells are well nourished. We can think more clearly, recall memories with ease and operate with greater efficiency. However, a deficiency in neural-nutrients can prevent these mind messengers from functioning as they should. Taken orally, PS is rapidly absorbed and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain to deliver critical nutrients and remove mind-slowing waste.

PS is a naturally-occurring phospholipid nutrient that gives your brain the nourishment that it needs and can slow, and even in some cases, reverse the loss of mental capacity. Our bodies produce PS naturally. PS as a dietary supplement was introduced to the US nutrition industry in 1994. It is safe and there are more than 60 human studies and 3,000 scientific reports that confirm that PS helps prevent age-related dementia. Several studies showed patients having instant improvement in memory and reasoning ability. Also, positive effects on language, judgment, fatigue, depression, vision loss, hearing impairment and fatigue were noted. PS can actually restore learning ability, clarity, focus, and memory.

PS can provide relatively quick benefits, especially to mature adults who are experiencing age-related mental decline. Taken early in life can help the breakdown of the synapses slow down and preserve memory and brain power. Studies show that memory loss is easier to reverse in early stages and easier to prevent. Doctors have seen the reversal of early Alzheimer and depression, winter blues, and even seizures. Improvements in mood and short-term memory show very quickly in patients.

A large portion of the current research being conducted in the field of human memory is directed towards slowing down the gradual loss of mental capacity and finding natural ways to improve one's mental abilities. Studies indicate that PS is especially useful for such things as remembering names and faces, recalling telephone numbers, recalling misplaced objects and improving the ability to concentrate. In fact, PS may even reverse the aging of the brain and restore youthful brain function.

The Wall Street Journal on 26 Nov 2002, published an article in their Aches & Claims column entitled "Can a Pill Boost Your Memory?" which addressed the myriad nutraceuticals typically found in memory enhancing supplements. Phosphatidylserine, or PS as it is commonly called, was highly recommended as an effective memory supplement ingredient, as the article advised people to, "Stick with supplements that contain only PS, or PS along with antioxidants."


In May 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would allow the following claims to accompany products that contain PS:


Although the FDA requires the presence of an accompanying statement reading "Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that PS may reduce the risk of dementia [cognitive dysfunction] in the elderly," the claim nonetheless is a landmark first for any food or supplement and a positive association with mental illness


PS is a phospholipid that is vital to your brain cells. Phospholipids are molecules containing both amino and fatty acids found in every cell membrane within our bodies. The fatty acids include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid molecules—essential for life. Actually, PS is universally present in living things from the most simple to the most complex. PS and other phospholipids are structural components of brain neurons that can enhance cell-to-cell communication. PS has many known functions throughout all of our tissues and organs, but is most important as the key building block for the billions of cells that make up our brain. First isolated in 1942, PS is now available as a dietary supplement derived from soy lecithin.

Phosphatidyl Serine is found in all cells but is most highly concentrated in the walls (membranes) of brain cells making up about 70% of its nerve tissue mass. There it aids in the storage, release, and activity of many vital neurotransmitters and their receptors. PS also aids in cell-to-cell communication. PS is involved in the upkeep and restoration of nerve cell membranes. Among its list of functions, PS stimulates the release of dopamine (a mood regulator that also controls physical sensations and movement), increases the production of acetylcholine (necessary for learning and memory), enhances brain glucose metabolism (the fuel used for brain activity), reduces cortisol levels (a stress hormone), and boosts the activity of nerve growth factor (NGF), which oversees the health of cholinergic neurons. Research has shown that dietary supplementation with PS can slow and even reverse the decline of learning, mood, memory, concentration, and word recall related to dementia or age-related cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly subjects. PS can slow, halt or reverse the decline of memory and mental function due to aging. PS is one of the best of all drugs and nutritional supplements tested for retarding age associated memory impairment (AAMI).

Clinical research shows that Phosphatidyl Serine is a beneficial and safe dietary supplement, and can be used in any program of improving mental function. Taken orally, PS is rapidly absorbed and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain. PS is derived from soy phospholipids and has a long history of safe use in dietary supplements and foods.


PS is far more abundant in the brain than in the other organs, and to date has the most clinical significance as a brain nutrient. Dietary supplementation with PS can benefit brain functions from the most basic to the most sophisticated. PS can slow the loss of brain functions, and in some cases partially rejuvenate them.

Research has shown orally-supplied Phosphatidyl Serine reaches the brain through the systemic and lymph circulation. After reaching the brain it is redistributed to cells and within cell membranes. Research also has shown Phosphatidyl Serine to be responsible for a wide variety of biological effects. Besides improving glucose metabolism within the brain, it can stimulate synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetycholine, improve receptor functioning and thereby restore nerve signal transduction. Restoring proper nerve cell function is thought to be a major reason for the reversal of age associated memory loss. PS is not abundant in common foods, so it is limited in the human diet. Moreover, the body can make it only through a complex series of reactions and with substantial investment of energy. Given orally, PS is rapidly absorbed and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain. There, its sites of action appear to be exclusively in cell membrane.

Membranes are the major work surfaces of all known cells, and PS is a universal cell membrane building block. Nerve cells especially depend on membranes to carry out their specialized functions. The generation of the electrical current, the transmission of the current along the cell, and the relaying of the current across the cell-to-cell chemical synapse are all membrane-driven events. Membrane proteins play key roles in all these processes, and PS is important for regulating the activities of such proteins.

After a quarter century of research with PS on human subjects, laboratory animals, cells in culture and molecules in the test tube, it is clear that this nutrient has profound value to the human brain. PS has been intensively studied for cognitive decline. Substantial amounts of mechanistic, experimental and clinical data are available on PS, and the findings overwhelmingly indicate PS is highly effective and is safe to take.

The fact that PS is an orthomolecule, i.e., intrinsic to all the body's cells, helps explain its superiority over herbal preparations like Ginkgo Biloba extract, vinpocetine and huperzine, none of which has substantial orthomolecular character and is predictive of its safety for both short-term and long-term use.

PS is present in all our cells, tissues, and organs, and it has profound roles in energetics, repair and renewal. But it is in the brain that PS most shines. PS is a key cell membrane phospholipid, important for the brain cells to make energy via their mitochondrial membrane systems. PS also is essential to the packaging of the nerve transmitters into membrane vesicles, to transmitter release via membrane fusion, and to transmitter actions on receptors embedded in the nerve cell membranes. Altogether, these activities translate into whole-brain effects that explain the documented clinical benefits of PS.

Recently it was discovered that the brain can produce new nerve cells, under the influence of growth factors. In animal experiments PS protected the receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF) against age-related loss, while conserving the existing circuits. This is consistent with its clinical brain revitalization effects.

The premier status of PS as a neuroceutical grows out of decades of controlled clinical application. Its unique biochemistry, metabolism and range of proven benefits take it beyond the drugs and other nutrients that target the brain. For people of all ages, taking PS offers hope for a level of brain sharpness that defies the passing of the years.


Over 3,000 published research papers and more than 60 clinical trials have established that PS can rejuvenate your brain cell membranes and thereby:

  • strengthen your memory
  • increase vigilance and attention
  • boost learning
  • increase mental activity
  • intensify concentration
  • relieve depression and improve mood
  • decrease stress


Figure 3

This is an amazing PET imaging of the brain of a 59-year-old female. The color scale semi-quantitatively indicates regional glucose metabolism at three brain levels, with red being most intense and blue, least intense (see color scale). Upper, before PS; lower, after 500 mg PS daily for three weeks. Metabolism is increased in almost all brain regions. (From Klinkhammer 1990.)

PS inhibits stress-induced increases in Cortisol and Plasma ACTH levels ( Figure 4)

Figure 4: PS is able to reduce cortisol and plasma ACTH levels when the body experiences stress. While the studies used exercise to produce the stress, the same principle holds for other types of stress, such as that elicited by mental exertion or physically demanding tasks.



PS restores your brain's supply and output of acetylcholine—neurotransmitter essential to memory. ( Figure 5 )

Figure 5: PS increases communication between cells in your brain by increasing the number of membrane receptor sites for receiving messages. PS modulates the fluidity of cell membranes—essential to your brain cells' ability to send and receive chemical communication. PS restores the brain's supply and output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter so important to memory

PS restores your brain's supply and output of dopamine—essential to memory, attention and problem-solving. ( Figure 6 )

Figure 6: PS also stimulates your brain to produce dopamine and this is likely why patients diagnosed with clinical depression have shown marked improvement in their symptoms as a result of taking PS daily. Reduced dopamine levels are also thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and this natural substance has proven to be an effective therapeutic agent for ADD and ADHD. Interestingly, clinical researchers also found PS lowered uric acid levels and liver SGPT in their elderly patients—which can signify improved liver health



Although the body is able to produce PS on its own, it must go through a series of reactions that require a substantial investment of energy. This makes supplementation an attractive option. When PS is taken orally, the non-degraded portion is rapidly assimilated and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier.

Your body cannot produce Phosphatidyl Serine in sufficient amounts when aged or under stress or when lacking in the necessary enzymes and metabolic cofactors.

While aging increases our brain's need for PS it also creates digestive and metabolic inefficiency so that it's simply not possible to get enough PS in your diet. Considerable research has proven that PS improves age-associated memory impairment and continued use prevents age-related decay of brain functions.

Daily Phosphatidyl Serine Consumption. ( Figure 7 )

Figure 7-Modern Diets: Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary PS. A vegetarian diet may undersupply as much as 200 to 250 mg per day. Other eating styles also create a demand for more PS. For example, a diet deficient in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the amount of PS in the brain by 28% and thereby impair your brain's ability to form, store, process and remember. To make matters worse, modern industrial production of fats and oils decreases all of the natural phospholipids—including PS. Vegetables and most dairy products contain only small quantities of PS. A weekly diet of 3 to 4 servings of meat, 1 or 2 servings of fish, several servings of sausage and 2 to 3 eggs, plus 8 ounces of milk and 2 slices of cheese per day would provide approximately 130 mg of PS intake per day. Even a soy-based diet would still result in less than 50 mg of PS per day.


Human trials on PS as a memory aid date back to the 1970’s. There are currently 64 human studies on record in the peer-reviewed literature, the findings of which unequivocally confirm that PS can alleviate, ameliorate and sometimes reverse age-related decline of memory, learning, concentration, word skills and mood. It appears to do this by strengthening the ability of neurons to transmit electrical potentials, which aids the communications between neurons which is essential for memory. In addition, PS activates Protein Kinase C (PKC), which aids in the release of such neurotransmitters as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine.

After a quarter century of research with PS on human subjects, laboratory animals, cells in culture and molecules in the test tube, it is clear that this nutrient has profound value to the human brain. PS has been intensively studied for cognitive decline. Substantial amounts of mechanistic, experimental and clinical data are available on PS, and the findings overwhelmingly indicate PS is highly effective and is safe to take. The fact that PS is an orthomolecule, i.e., intrinsic to all the body's cells, is predictive of its safety for both short-term and long-term us.

PS has been shown in human trials to improve memory, increase lucidity, increase rate of learning, and to help cope with the concerns of the day and increase sociability. PS is a phospholipid, which is the principal component of all cell membranes. PS provides five special benefits:

  • It activates cell-to-cell communication
  • It stabilizes the inner environment of the cell
  • It helps regulate cell growth
  • It improves the functioning of the special recepters found on cells

Double-Blind U.S. Trials Conducted with PS

Described below are most of the double-blind clinical trials with PS. The double-blind study uses placebos and PS where participants do not know which one they are receiving. These studies are the “gold standard” for clinical trials.

Seventeen Double-Blind Clinical Trials with Phosphatidyl Serine


No. of Subjects

Scientific Refs*



Amaducci et al, 1988



200 mg/day Vs. placebo

Benefited memory, verbal ability, daily living

Cenacchi et al, 1993



300 mg/day Vs. placebo


Benefited memory, learning, adaptability

Crook et al, 1991



300mg/day Vs. placebo

Benefited memory, concentration


Crook et al, 1992






300 mg/day Vs. placebo 


Benefited memory, global clinical in subgroup

Delwaide et al, 1986



300 mg/day Vs. placebo


Benefited daily living

Engel et al, 1992



300 mg/day Placebo/crossover

Gave global clinical benefit

Füngeld et al, 1989



300 mg/day Vs. placebo


Reduced anxiety, improved mood

Gindin et al, 1995



 300 mg/dayVs. placebo


Benefited memory, improved mood

Hershkowitz et al, 1989




300 mg/day Vs. placebo


Improved time orientation, sociability

Maggioni et al, 1990

10 women



 300 mg/day Placebo crossover


Improved memory, concentration, anxiety, sociability

Monteleone et al, 1992

8 men (exercising)



50,775 mg IV vs. placebo


Reduced stress hormone production

Monteleone et al,

9 men (exercising)



 400/800 mg vs. placebo


Reduced stress hormone production at 800 mg/day

Nerozzi et al, 1987




300 mg/day Vs. placebo


Benefited memory and recollection

Palmieri et al, 1987



300 mg/day Vs. placebo

Benefited memory, learning, sociability, daily living

Ransmayr et al, 1987



300 mg/day Vs. placebo

Improved discrimination of flickering light

Rosadini et al, 1991

8 men


25/50/75 mg IV

Improved EEG alpha rhythm

Villardite et al, 1987



300 mg/day Vs. placebo

Benefited memory, learning concentration, verbal ability

*See end of report


Human Clinical Studies

A number of human clinical studies have also been conducted using PS to support healthy brain activity. In a review of the effects of PS supplementation, the authors suggest that PS may be effective at enhancing cognitive function and supporting mild memory problems associated with aging based on the results seen in both animal and human studies.2

One of the first double-blind controlled studies on PS was published in 1986, and consisted of 35 people with mild memory problems associated with aging taking either 100mg of animal derived PS three times per day or placebo. The subjects were analyzed with tests designed to assess problems found in activities of daily life. They were tested after one week and six weeks of taking the supplement, and then three weeks after discontinuing. Although statistical significance was reached only in one test (The Peri Scale, a measure of mood, cognitive function, behavior and activities of daily living), the subjects taking the PS showed positive trends towards improvement on all three tests compared to the controls.14

Two double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of PS have been conducted by T. H. Crook, PhD, from the Memory Assessment Clinics (MAC) of Bethesda, Maryland. Both were multi-center studies.

The first study a double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at 149 people supplementing with PS over 6 months. The subjects were given 200mg of PS or placebo orally for 3 months. Nine standard tests for brain function were used to analyze the subjects before and after the treatment, and then again at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (after discontinuing the treatment). They found that in the group most impacted by memory problems associated with aging there was a benefit of PS on a number of the cognitive tests performed, even up to 6 months after the discontinuation of the supplement.11

In the second study (1992) by Dr Crook, 51 subjects were studied. The average subject age was 71 years. Again subjects were given 300mg PS versus placebo daily for 12 weeks. In this study, the PS group demonstrated significant cognitive improvement throughout the entire 12 week period. Again a sub group was identified (those with relatively mild cognitive impairment at the outset). This group showed significant improvement in their ability to recall names, locations, details of events from the previous day and week, as well as ability to maintain concentration.(12)

In another study, PS was given to 494 elderly patients who had mild memory problems associated with aging. They were given 300 mg per day or placebo for six months. The individuals were examined at the beginning of the study, after three months of supplementation, and at six months.7 Using a standardized scale to assess changes in behavior and cognitive function, they found statistically significant enhancement of cognitive function in the group who took PS. There didn’t appear to be any side effects associated with the use of PS in this study.

A similar but shorter placebo-controlled study again looked at the effectiveness of PS in individuals with mild memory problems associated with aging. It involved 163 patients who again took 100 mg PS three times daily. They took the supplement for 12 weeks, and were evaluated every three weeks. The benefits they found included enhancement of memory and name recall, learning, and ability to concentrate compared to the control group. The subjects tolerated the Phosphatidyl Serine well and no side effects were reported.11

Yet another trial, this one open-label (both the health provider and subjects were aware of the supplement given) looked at PS from plant sources on 15 people with mild memory problems associated with aging. The study lasted for 12 weeks, and the participants were evaluated by standard memory and learning tests 3 times (at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). They were all given 100mg of PS, in PS enriched lecithin capsules, three times per day. They found that the subjects performed significantly better on most of the tests after supplementing with PS compared to before supplementation, and 9 subjects reported improvement of their memory in day to day tasks. Although this study was open-label, the results fit in well with previous studies using Phosphatidyl Serine.64

Animal Studies

Research has shown the ability of PS to enhance mental function. Studies in animals suggest that PS can positively impact learning ability. In one such study, PS derived from soybean lecithin was evaluated in mice for its effect on chemically-induced impaired learning. The PS was able to significantly reverse the learning impairment in mice.60 Another study evaluated the effects of bovine, soybean, and egg-derived PS on behavioral tests in middle-aged rats.61 The results showed that PS from both bovine and soy was able to enhance mental functioning in rats undergoing an active avoidance task (a laboratory measure of learning ability). No effect was seen in the groups given either the egg-derived PS or the control.

Another group of researchers looked at the effectiveness of soy compared to bovine PS in aged rats forced to perform a memory task known as the Morris water-maze test, a standardized lab measure of spatial memory function.62 The rats were fed soy derived PS at 60 mg/kg for 60 days. This significantly enhanced performance of the task by aged rats compared to control rats, indicating beneficial effects on memory function. The results were similar with PS from bovine sources.

Scientists have suggested that PS protects brain tissue by a novel mechanism.63 A controlled study was done on rats where they were given PS injections at three different points in time. They were then injected with placebo or LPS, a chemical agent known to have a negative effect on nerve transmission in the hippocampus. Three hours later, rats were assessed for their ability to retain long-term potentiation. At the end of the experiment, the hippocampal area of the rat brains was looked at. Pretreatment with PS helped the animals overcome the effects of LPS and support the health of brain tissue. The rats treated with PS were also found to have higher levels of the protective anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than control animals. They found that giving IL-10 also overcame the effects of LPS in a manner similar to PS. Thus the group of researchers concluded that one of the mechanisms of brain protection by Phosphatidyl Serine may be its ability to increase IL-10 production.


Our brains normally manufacture enough Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) to keep us in top mental order. However, when we reach middle age, our levels of PS begin to decline -- an effect that is worsened by deficiencies of other essential fatty acids, folic acid or vitamin B12. Because PS is necessary for effective neurotransmission, PS deficiency is linked to mental impairment, including Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementia, depression and Parkinson's disease among middle-aged and elderly people.

Since PS deficiency is associated with these common age-related conditions, many experts believe that PS supplements can help improve, or even reverse, symptoms. As Elizabeth Somer further explains in her book, Food & Mood, "PS supplements restock brain cell membranes, boosting nerve chemical activity such as dopamine and serotonin, stimulating nerve cell growth, lowering levels of the stress hormones, possibly generating new connections between cells, and stirring activity in all brain centers, especially higher brain centers such as the cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary gland."

According to the 2002 Bottom Line Yearbook, "Phosphatidyl Serine is the only medication that's been proven to reverse age-related memory loss in clinical studies. “Furthermore, these clinical studies are overwhelmingly positive about the amazing abilities of PS.”

In Alternative Cures, Bill Gottlieb reports that one study demonstrated that PS can reverse the chronological age of neurons by as much as 12 years. Of course, this has enormous implications for people suffering from age-related dementia.

A recent study on men aged 50 and older with non-Alzheimer's dementia found that a three-month regimen of 300 milligrams of PS daily was enough treatment to drastically improve mental function, according to Dr. Russell L. Blaylock's book, Excitotoxins. In one study, Alzheimer's patients experienced cognitive improvements after receiving only 100 milligrams of PS for three months, while another study demonstrated that 400 milligrams of PS per day led to short-term neurological and psychological improvements in people with Alzheimer's.

The abilities of PS look so promising that Phosphatidyl Serine expert and author Professor Parris Kidd calls it "the single best means for conserving memory and other higher brain functions as we age."

Scientists create PS by putting soy lecithin through an enzymatic process that changes Phosphatidyl Choline into Phosphatidyl Serine. After reviewing more than 3,000 peer-reviewed research papers on PS, Professor Kidd asserts, "The remarkable benefits of PS and its safety in use are now established beyond doubt," In his Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Dr. Hendler writes that PS "does not appear to have any adverse side effects."


Yes! The use of PS is well validated through clinical research and proven safe in standard toxicology tests. From the large number of human studies conducted PS developed a flawless safety record. First, it has proven compatible with a wide array of medications including: antacids, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, anti-ulcer and mucolytic agents, diuretics, antit-hrombotics, hypoglycemics, anti-arrthymics, insulin, calcium channel blockers, calcitonin, chemotherapy drugs and other prescription medications. Second, PS is well tolerated by elderly patients with chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular, artery and vein disorders, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, lung diseases, digestive system diseases and arthritis. A group of researchers reported on the excellent safety profile of soy derived PS.17 In this study, they found no significant differences between treatment and control groups when they looked at a number of blood safety parameters, vital signs, and subjective complaints. Thus they concluded that PS is a safe nutritional supplement for the elderly at least up to 600mg per day in divided doses. PS has been tested with subjects of all ages and conditions, ranging from hyperactive children to elderly persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease, in sports and non sports applications, over periods up to 6 months. Phosphatidyl Serine has been proven to be the only cognition-enhancing supplement that lacked unwanted side effects. In addition, the extensive human and animal studies have found no danger from long-term supplemental intake of PS- one study tested dogs fed up to 70 grams of PS per day (approximately 1000 times recommended human consumption) and found no serious side effects


Those aggravating things that go wrong in the day and those irritating things that go bump in the night – disrupting routines and interrupting sleep – all have a cumulative effect on your brain, especially its ability to remember and learn.

As science gains greater insight into the consequences of stress on the brain, the picture that emerges is not a pretty one. A chronic overreaction to stress overloads the brain with powerful hormones that are intended only for short-term duty in emergency situations. Their cumulative effect damages and kills brain cells.
What do we do when we’re down in the dumps?  While plopping down on the sofa with a snack might be an easy solution, it comes with a price.  Not only does stress interfere with mood, but it can also inspire inactivity, over-eating and sluggishness.  This is due largely in part to cortisol - a catabolic hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to emotional stress.  Studies done to determine the effectiveness of PS on cortisol suppression have shown that it works by suppressing the hormones that produce cortisol.  As a result, supplementing with PS may be able to help reduce the amount of stress related hormones that ultimately leave us singing the blues.


PS has proven compatible with a wide array of medications including: antacids, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, anti-ulcer and mucolytic agents, diuretics, anti-thrombotics, hypoglycemics, anti-arrthymics, insulin, calcium channel blockers, calcitonin, chemotherapy drugs and other prescription medications. PS is well tolerated by elderly patients with chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular, artery and vein disorders, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, lung diseases, digestive system diseases and arthritis.



Even though memory loss is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s and other dementias, there are clear differences between what scientists call “age-related memory loss” (ARML) and dementia—both in the symptoms that might be experienced and in the underlying biological changes in the brain. A momentary loss of memory is most probably not a sign of Alzheimer's, or if so it's a very distant one. People between 65 and 75 face only a 4% chance of suffering from that sad, destructive disease, vs. a frightening 50% chance for those over 85 (see Alzheimer's box). Yet almost all of us will be tripped up by forgetfulness from time to time as we age. Memory may begin to get a little shaky even in our late 30s, but the decline is so gradual that we don't start to stumble until we're 50ish. While dementia involves a broad loss of cognitive abilities, ARML is primarily a deficit of declarative memory. Forgetting where you parked your car can happen to everyone occasionally, but forgetting what your car looks like may be a cause for concern. Brain researchers are working hard to pin down where forgetfulness ends and Alzheimer’s begins. The question is a difficult one, and a subject of much debate among experts in brain aging. One important clue from brain research is that people with Alzheimer’s are able to retain significantly less information after a period of delay than healthy people. That means that new information may be learned, but little will be remembered after a delay of even a few hours.

Other studies have suggested that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition marked by repeated lapses in short-term memory, may in fact be early-stage Alzheimer’s in some patients—but certainly not in all. Distinct changes in memory that occur over the course of a year or two, and can be verified with psychological testing, are the hallmarks of MCI. Such changes may at first be mild enough that daily functions are not disrupted and are often first noticed by a loved one. If you or someone you love is experiencing significant changes in memory or persistent forgetfulness that interferes with work or home responsibilities, seek a doctor’s help. Stress and fatigue can affect memory, and even if MCI is diagnosed, there may be a cause other than Alzheimer’s, such as side effects from medications, depression, stroke or mini-strokes, or a head injury.



Some people experience memory loss, report an inability to concentrate as well, and feel that they are developing Alzheimer’s disease when taking statin drugs. This memory loss may be so extreme as to be amnesia that lasts for 6 to 12 hours. These types of problems are known as cognitive defects. Other people claim to experience mood swings and other behavioral changes when taking statins. These differences in behavior are not just subjective feelings on the part of the individual but tend to be corroborated by family members.

There are cases of cognitive difficulty that have been reported to the FDA as adverse side effects to statins. A systematic review of the cases reported to the FDA determined that approximately half of the memory loss problems occurred within 60 days of starting on statin therapy, although memory problems were reported after taking a statin drug for just 5 days. Fortunately most people return to normal after discontinuing the statin drug. The time until recovery appears to be related to the amount of time before the cognitive symptoms appeared; that is, the longer it took for the symptoms to appear, the longer it took for the person to recover. However, a small group may continue to suffer with cognitive problems, perhaps indefinitely. (For a discussion of side effects see


Phosphatidyl Choline (PC) is included in the Advanced Formula together with Phosphatidyl Serine (See order information). It is crucial in the maintenance of membrane fluidity, a key to the normal and healthy working of our cells, and is a major source of the nutrient choline. Choline is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a molecule fundamental to the proper functioning of the nervous system. PC has been found to be beneficial in a number of neurological conditions and in the repair of cell membranes, particularly in the liver. Four of the five prescription drugs for Alzheimer's that are currently on the American Market are cholinesterase inhibitors that enhance cholinergic function - liberating acetylcholine by blocking the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine. PC is a major constituent of lecithin and is necessary to form acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. It is used for treatment of depression, dementia, Alzheimers disease and improving mental performance. It has also been successfully used in the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

It helps to control a number of nerve cell functions including: the conduction of nerve impulses; the accumulation, storage and release of neurotransmitters and the maintenance of normal cellular functions. PS is an important nutrient involved in keeping the brain cell membranes intact. Membranes are what make up the surfaces of cells, especially nerve cells. It is these membranes that selectively allow certain essential nutrients to pass into the cell for normal body functions including memory.


While probably not the most important thing in the world when it comes to improving your mental well-being, this clinical study found some startling results for the amateur golfer. (Ralf Jäger et al Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007; 4: 23. published online 2007 December 4)

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation on golf performance in healthy young golfers with handicaps of 15–40.

Perceived stress, heart rate and the quality of the ball flight was evaluated before (pre-test) and after (post-test) 42 days of 200 mg per day PS or placebo intake in the form of a nutritional bar. Subjects teed-off 20 times aiming at a green 135 meters from the tee are The relationship between stress and sports performance is an extremely complex one and involves the interaction between the nature of the stressor, the cognitive demands of the task being performed and the psychological characteristics of the individuals performing it. Paradoxical performance effects ('choking under pressure') are the result of inferior performance despite striving and incentives for superior performance. Experimental findings of decrease in performance are associated with four pressure variables: audience presence, competition, performance-contingent rewards and punishments, and ego relevance of the task .The primary finding of this investigation was that oral supplementation with 200 mg PS for six weeks in form of a nutritional bar significantly improved the number of good ball flights in a group of male golfers with a handicap of 15–40. Furthermore, PS intake resulted in a trend of improved perceived stress levels during tee-off. Unpredictability and uncertainty resulting in worry and strain, combined with ego-involvement, are considered key psychological elements. While the placebo group showed the expected increase in distress, the PS group showed stable values which may then result in improved performance.

The conclusion was that six weeks of PS supplementation significantly improved the number of good ball flights during tee-off which might result in improved golf scores.



This simple memory test may help give you a better idea of whether your memory problems are out of the ordinary or cause for concern. Keep in mind that this is just a simple paper-and-pencil memory test. For a more specific test of your memory, contact your doctor or a psychologist, who can administer a battery of special memory tests.


  1. Remember these words: apple, television, lamb
  2. Remember this name and address:
       Jane Doe
       2745 Broad
       Philadelphia, PA
  3. Have you had more trouble than usual remembering what you've done for the past few weeks?
  4. Has it been harder for you to remember lists?
  5. Have you noticed a decline in your ability to calculate in your head, such as figuring out a restaurant tip or making correct change?
  6. Have you been forgetting to pay bills?
  7. Have you had trouble remembering names?
  8. Have you had trouble recognizing people you should know?
  9. Have you had a hard time finding the right word you want to use?
  10. Have you had trouble remembering how to do simple tasks such as using a microwave or a remote control?
  11. Do memory lapses interfere with your functioning at work?
  12. Do memory lapses interfere with your functioning at home?
  13. Do memory lapses interfere with your functioning in social situations?
  14. Name the last three mayors of your town.
  15. Name the past five U.S. presidents.
  16. What was the main dish you had for dinner the past two nights?
  17. What were the last two movies you saw?
  18. Write down the three words you were asked to remember at the beginning of the quiz.
  19. Write down the name and address you were asked to remember at the beginning of the quiz.


Give yourself 1 point for each "no" answer for questions 3-13 (maximum 11 points)
Give yourself 1 point for each correct answer for questions 14-19 (maximum 21 points)

If you scored:
28-32 Congratulations! You have a better-than-average memory.

22-27 Not bad, but you could benefit from some memory exercises.

15-21 Your memory is a bit weak; memory exercises should help you improve your memory.

0-14 You may want to consider getting a professional evaluation



*45 East 89th. St. New York, NY 10128


Advanced Formula Phosphatidyl Serine is the only product we manufacture. It’s what we know and it’s too important to be mixed in with a variety of other dietary supplements, diluting our focus. It’s manufactured at an FDA approved facility in the USA.

We developed our Advanced Formula Phosphatidyl Serine product with reference to all the available science developed over the past 25 years.

“Advanced Formula Phosphatidyl Serine
is the most effective formula you can buy.”


Most people start to notice positive results within two to three months. It may take longer for those with more severe memory problems to notice improvement. Typically, the longer you take PS the better the results.


Suggested 3 capsules daily initially.
60 capsules - Amount per capsule

Phosphatydil Serine

100 mg 


Phosphatydil Choline

35 mg 


* Daily Value not established
Other Ingredients: Gelatin capsule.


Phosphatydil Serine is a soy lecithin derived product. Lecithin is transformed into PS utilizing enzymatic reactions. PS is a vital component of all cell membranes and is found in particularly high concentrations within the brain. It serves to maintain the integrity and function of the cell membranes. It also allows communication among nerve cells, promotes proper nutrient movement across the cell membrane and aids proper release and reception of neurotransmitters in the brain.

Phosphatydil Choline is crucial in the maintenance of membrane fluidity, a key to the normal and healthy working of our cells, and is a major source of the nutrient choline. Choline is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a molecule fundamental to the proper functioning of the nervous system.


Daily dosage of Advanced Formula is 3 capsules - (one capsule, 3 times daily taken with meals ) . Begin supplementation with an initial dose of 3 capsules per day and then this can be reduced to a maintenance dose of 2 capsules per day after six to twelve months.



The minimum course of treatment recommended is six months. A longer commitment will ensure continuous improvement in memory and cognitive ability.

   •  12 Months Supply $299.00 (Reg. $708) - SAVE $409
   •  6 Months Supply $199.00 (Reg. $354) - SAVE $155
   •  3 Months Supply $129.00 (Reg. $177) - SAVE $48
   •  1 Month Supply $59.00  




Order a 12 month supply and get an additional 3 month supply free-15 months total. That’s an additional saving of $129!!


Made in the U.S.A.


You have NOTHING TO LOSE—there is an unconditional guarantee if you fail to feel the difference in your well-being and see tangible results after using ADVANCED FORMULA PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE. Return the unused portion for a full refund, NO QUESTIONS ASKED!

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Use only as directed. ADVANCED FORMULA PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE should not be taken by pregnant or lactating women.

Keep out of reach of children

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease.


The information provided herein is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment.

You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem. You should not stop taking any medication without first consulting your physician.



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